CNC machining has emerged as a more efficient and faster manufacturing strategy. This method involves removing layers of material from a workpiece using software-controlled milling, turning, or EDM machines. Manual machining, on the other hand, should be done by hand and by experienced or highly trained machinists. The benefits of CNC machining appear limitless when comparing CNC machining to manual machining.

However, some manufacturers use manual machining tools to create prototyping parts. Manual machining, in particular, has a huge place in the industry and for low-volume rapid prototypes.

A well-chosen manufacturing technique results in a successful project. Here’s a detailed comparison of CNC and Manual machining to help you make the most suitable choice for your unique prototypes and end-use production parts.

What Is CNC Machining?

Computer Numerical Control machining, or CNC for short, is an advanced manufacturing method. In contrast to manual machining, in which operators control the tools themselves, CNC machining depends entirely upon computer programs. These are usually in the form of G-code and control the CNC machine’s movements.

The applicability of CNC machining is also significant, including tasks such as milling, turning, and drilling. So, it can be used in many different industries. What makes CNC machining irreplaceable is its mastery of handling complicated geometries and intricate designs. Although the initial setup cost may be greater, CNC machining is sometimes better in terms of economy. In reality, CNC machining is a technological progress that greatly improves the precision and efficiency of manufacturing work.

How Does CNC Machining Work?

CNC machining is computer-controlled and automated, providing an accurate and highly efficient way of making things. The process involves several key steps:

  • Design and CAD Model

First, a detailed design of the part or component is produced using Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software. The CAD model is the digital design of the finished product, showing sizes, shapes, and so on.

  • Conversion to CNC Code (G-code):

The instructions are converted into a CAD model the CNC machine can follow. This is usually done by turning the design into G-code, a language of alphanumeric codes representing specific commands to feed into the CNC machine. The G-code is instructions for toolpaths, speeds, and movements.

  • Machine Setup

Setting up the CNC machine must be preceded by setting it before machining can begin. The whole process includes the following steps: It is first necessary to capture and secure raw material (such as metal, plastic, or wood) in a ready-to-cut state on the table of the machine. Attach cutting tools are then used for milling; these cutters can be fixed rigidly by hand or may have chucks capable of clamping them tightly when tightened up.

  • Execution of Program

After being set up, the CNC machine processes instructions in its memory. The CNC controller decodes the G-code and precisely controls the machine’s cutting tool movement. These so-called cutting tools, such as drills, mills, or lathes, shape the raw workpiece into its final design.

  • Feedback and Adjustments

Sensors and feedback systems are often installed on CNC machines to monitor the machining process in real-time. This feedback allows the machine to adjust as needed to maintain accuracy and consistency throughout a production run.

  • Completion of Machining

The CNC machine runs on programmed instructions, turning the raw material into its desired shape. Once precision machining is completed, the part is ready for polishing, assembly, or use in a final product.

Parts of a CNC Machine

CNC machine
CNC machine

The different parts of CNC (Computer Numerical Control) work together to perform complex and precise machining. Here are the primary parts of a CNC machine:

  • Controller

The controller is the brain of a CNC machine. It converts the CNC code (also called C-code) into electrical signals which drive motors, switches and other related equipment. High-end machines often use computers to manage controls, with a user interface for programming and monitoring.

  • Program Input Device

This device lets operators load the CNC code into the machine. It can be a computer, or any USB drive, etc. The input device for the program enters the G-code, which provides instructions to tell the machine just what machining operations are required.

  • Axes

One or more motors control the axes of movement on CNC machines. The number of axes depends on the type of machine. Typical configurations are three-axis machines (X, Y, and Z) for milling or turning work. More complex machines added extra rotational axes.

  • Drive System

The motors are the drive system that moves the machine along designated axes. Such motors receive signals from the controller and turn them into physical movement. Achieving accurate machining depends on the precision and speed of drive systems.

  • Tool Spindle

During machining, the tool spindle holds and rotates the cutting tool at high speeds. Blood Flow: The tool spindle varies according to the machining operation–the milling machine has rotating spindles that hold milling cutters. At the same time, the lathe uses a hollow spindle that holds and turns the workpiece.

  • Worktable

The surface that holds the workpiece in place for machining is called a worktable or chuck. It can move along the designated axes, accurately placing the workpiece. Milling machines move the worktable while lathes rotate the chuck.

  • Cutting Tools

According to the machining operation, machines use various cutting tools, including end mills, drills, and turning tools. These tools are mounted on the flying spindle, and the material is cut off to shape it up in conformity with a predetermined image.

  • Coolant System

Heating is an unavoidable byproduct of machining, and a coolant system regulates the temperature to disperse or remove dust chips generated in this process. It also prolongs the life of cutting tools and improves the machined part’s surface quality.

  • Control Panel

The control panel allows operators to enter commands, monitor the cutting process, and make adjustments if necessary. It may have a display screen, buttons, and controls for various machine functions.

What Is Manual Machining?

Manual machining
Manual machining

In manual machining, skilled operators use their hands to directly control the orientation and movement of tools and machinery used in shaping materials. Unlike the computer-controlled automation of CNC machining, the manual operation requires operators at each machine to guide the setting up, adjust settings, and control cutting operations. Such an approach calls for high-level skill for machinists, who must use their judgment and experience to create components with a very fine degree of accuracy. Manual machining involves several hand tools and manually operated machines such as lathes, milling machines, drills, and grinders.

This flexible method is ideal for small-scale production and rapid prototyping where flexibility and craftsmanship are most important. Manual machining is usually regarded as an artisanal technique that focuses on both the craft and skill required to make things. Manual machining may not have the efficiency of CNC. Still, it serves a useful educational role and lends itself to applications in which attention to detail rather than high-volume production is more important.

Manual Lathe Machining

Workpieces are shaped and modified using a manually operated lathe machine in manual lathe machining. With this method, the machinist serves a central role as he operates the lathe and controls its cutting tools. The workpiece is put on the lathe’s spindle by hand; cutting tools are selected and set manually, too. When the machinist guides the tool along the rotating workpiece, adjustments are made to achieve the desired cut depth and cutting speed. As tool changes and adjustments are often necessary, far-sighted judgment is needed to understand the machining process and the material’s properties.

Manual lathe machining is an adaptable process that can produce several cylindrical parts, from turned stock to more complex shapes. To achieve precision, machinists often use measuring tools while making adjustments to fit the specs. It is a labor-intensive process, depending on the skill and experience of the machinist. Manual lathe machining can’t match CNC methods in terms of automation. However, it is still very useful on a small scale and for prototypes, wherever it requires the knowledge and experience of the particular machinist.

Manual Milling Machining

In manual milling machining, skilled and capable hands operate a milling machine to shape or cut materials. In this case, the machinist places the workpiece on a milling machine’s table and selects cutting tools by hand in line with which particular operation will be performed. The machinist operates the cutting tool across the workpiece using handwheels, levers, and other manual controls to remove material from points where slots or pockets are desired; on contoured pieces, he roughens out before removing unnecessary materials. Manual milling machines generally move back and forth on many axes, allowing the machinist to combine these movements into complex shapes.

Different milling operations need many tool changes and adjustments. You must have a good understanding of the milling process and an in-depth knowledge of how different materials behave when machined. Measuring tools like micrometers and calipers are used to maintain precision throughout the whole machining process. Continuous measurements and adjustments are made right through until after turning is complete. Manual mills are versatile, capable of simple tasks such as facing and drilling and complex leaving operations involving contouring.

It doesn’t have the automation of CNC milling, but manual milling is cherished for personal craftsmanship. Machinists are very proud of their capacity to machine precise components through direct control over the milling machine. At the same time, the method is still applicable to tasks requiring the skills and creativity of an experienced man, as well as prototyping or small-scale production work where you can truly appreciate traditional millers ‘handiwork.

Key Differences

Here is a table showing the differences between CNC machining and manual machining. This section also explains the key differences between the two machining techniques.

FeaturesCNC machiningManual machining
ControlComputer Numerical Control (CNC)Manual control by machinists
AutomationHighly automated, computer-programmedFully dependent on operator control
ComplexityEspecially suitable for complex geometries and designsGood for simple tasks; limited in complex shapes
Setup TimeSome initial setup time is needed for CNC pro gramming.The setup may be faster, but manual adjustments are still needed
ProgrammingRequires programming skills for G-codeThe machine is manually set up and adjusted by the operator.
CostHigher initial investment; economical for large volumesCheaper to start with, but perhaps not as cost-efficient for large volumes
Lead TimeShorter lead times due to automationReflecting manual processes, lead times may be longer
MaintenanceCNC equipment needs frequent maintenanceIt is usually easier to maintain manual machines


In this context, accuracy means the degree to which a machined part meets its design dimensions. In CNC machining, accuracy is generally high since the computer-run movements are very precise, and human error can be eliminated. CNC machines are unfailingly accurate and precise, following programmed instructions exactly. However, manual machining accuracy depends on the skill and experience of the machinist. Although skilled operators can be very accurate, this is more prone to whatever human factors are introduced.


When performing a specific task multiple times, repeatability in machining means that one machine can consistently reproduce the same results. One of the strong points of CNC machining is repeatability. The machine precisely follows what it has been programmed to do for each cycle, thus ensuring consistent output. Because there are no operator-to-operator variations,

CNC machining is extremely repeatable. Compared with this, manual machining may show lower repeatability due to the dependence on the skill of the operator. Experienced operators can do a good job at repeatability, but it’s also more susceptible to variations due to human factors and tool wear.

Production Volume

But concerning production volume, CNC and manual machining are used for different manufacturing sizes. Because CNC machining is automated, it’s particularly suited for high-volume production. Once a CNC machine is programmed in this way, it can produce thousands of identical components with only minimal human intervention.

Therefore, CNC machining is especially suitable for industries where mass production is needed, such as electronics, which require high consistency and efficiency. Alternatively, manual machining is more suitable for low to medium production volumes.

Manual methods retain great flexibility and versatility, but their hands-on nature makes them relatively time-consuming in large-scale production environments.

Skills Required

CNC machining skills and manual machining abilities differ greatly. Computer programming, G-code, and the CNC machine control panel are all required to fully grasp CNC machining. CNC operators must read design directions, program the machine, and sort out bugs in this fully automated process. This requires a highly specialized skill set, often calling for integrating technical and programming abilities.

Manual machining, on the other hand, depends heavily upon the skill and experience of the machinist. A deep knowledge of cutting tools, materials, and machining techniques is also required from manual machinists. Their abilities include:

  • Interpreting technical drawings.
  • Choosing the right tool for use in a given situation.
  • Setting up the machine.

They can also control the process of cutting by hand.

Craftsmanlike machining techniques require the hands-on skill of machinists to produce precision components. It is a source of pride for them. In general, CNC machining combines programming skills and machine operation. The emphasis on manual operations lies more on old-fashioned hand introduction techniques and craftsmanship.

Factors to Consider

There are some factors to consider before choosing CNC or manual machining. Here are some of those factors:

Part Complexity

Part complexity is an important consideration in choosing between CNC and manual machining. CNC machining is especially suitable for dealing with complicated and intricate shapes of high precision. Because CNC machines are computer-controlled, they can produce parts that would be difficult or impossible to make by hand. CNC machining is right for you if your project has complicated design, tight tolerances or fine details. With its versatility, manual machining is suitable for simpler geometries and less complex parts.


In terms of budget, the choice between CNC and manual machining is significant. Moreover, investment in CNC machines is higher because besides buying the equipment there are also running expenses such as computer programming, tooling and maintaining the CNC machine. But in the long term there are savings from CNC machining, which is more productive and requires less labor as well as having economies of scale. On the other hand, manual machining costs less to get started and is more economical for small-scale or less complicated work. CNC or manual machining? To choose wisely, cost-effectiveness over the long term needs to be balanced with immediate budget constraints.


A big consideration distinguishing CNC from manual machining is production volume or the number of parts you need. CNC machining is labor-saving and efficient, so it suits large batches. With CNC machines, large numbers of parts can be made with only minimal human intervention. Hence, they are also suitable and economical for mass-production. But manual machining tends to be more suited for low volume production. As manual machining is by its nature a hands-on job, there may be both inefficiency and lack of speed if large batches of identical parts are to be produced.

Available Machining Time

Another important consideration is available machining time-especially with regard to production deadlines and turnaround times. CNC machining has the advantages of high-speed continuous operation and efficient use of machine time. CNC machines can run unattended for long periods, utilizing any time available. On the other hand, manual machining may take longer to set up, change tools and adjust manually. It can be less time-efficient as a result and especially for more complex or greater volume projects. Speed and continuous production: When time is the decisive factor, there are advantages in CNC machining.


This article has demonstrated the difference between manual and CNC machining. Expecting the same level of performance from manual machining as CNC machining is unrealistic. CNC machining run by advanced CAD/CAM software can be more precise, safe and accurate than the usual manual operation. It is also less costly and yields higher output levels.Do you no longer rely on manual machining to prototype parts? Zintilon provides custom online CNC machining services. Our network of skilled CNC machining partners can provide you with the required precision parts. Get a quote today to get started!

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